Obsessive - Compulsive Disorders
Psychiatric disorders which might led to social distancing.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder in which a person becomes overly worried, afraid or takes on an unrealistic threat and tries to deal with anxiety by engaging in ritualized or specialized activities.
During the course of the disease, often recurring disturbing thoughts and images, known as obsessions or intrusive thoughts, and ritualistic activities performed to get rid of them or to prevent a "catastrophe", called compulsions or intrusive activities are observed.
The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in society can be considered significant - it amounts to about 2.5% of the population.
If this disorder is present in the family, the risk of its development is higher and can reach even 9-10%.
In 25% of cases, symptoms begin before age 14 and in 80% before age 25
Coexisting mental disorders: anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, addiction from psychoactive substances, eating disorders.
Genetic inclinations - obsessive-compulsive diseases diagnosed in a close family.
Abnormalities in the anatomy or functioning of the nervous system center.
Environmental factors - childhood experiences regarding the sense of responsibility, risk prevention; pressure of perfection exerted by relatives and friends.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder can be characterized by a predominance of obsessive thoughts or compulsive activities (compulsions). The common feature of these symptoms is that the person suffering from them feels them as undesirable, illogical, therefore, they are often ashamed of.
Very strong concentration on dirt and germs
Constant doubts, e.g. whether I closed the door
Excessive focus on details, sequences or counting something
Intrusive thoughts about immoral, vulgar, obscene, socially unacceptable activities
Excessive attention to order, symmetry, accuracy
Continuous mental processing of one topic, its analysis, without the possibility of formulating constructive conclusions and making decisions
Obsessive hand washing and hygiene
Constant ordering, symmetrical arrangement of objects and frequent touching them
Intrusive, repeatedly checking something (closing windows, doors, turning off the iron)
The collection of unnecessary items, the possession of which is not rationally explained
Other, often complex, illogical activities
and absurd, but from the point of view of a sick person, requiring execution, under the threat of something catastrophic (e.g. walking around the house 20 times, touching all the books on the third shelf from the bottom of the bookcase with a finger)
In addition to the above, obsessive-compulsive disorder can be accompanied by other symptoms:
Tics - involuntary, recurring movements (e.g. repeated facial expressions or quick blinking of the eyes) or vocal phenomena (grunting, whistling, squeaking).
Phobias - various types of aversion to objects, something from the environment, resulting in the removal of these things or their avoidance (e.g. Aikhmophobia - fear of sharp objects).
Administration of drugs that inhibit serotonin reuptake. All of these drugs are also used to treat depression, but much larger doses are given for OCD.
It often results in a number of side effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, weight gain, sexual dysfunction or heart rhythm problems.
The most commonly used method is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) - the therapist working with the patient uses exposure and response prevention strategies.
Surgical treatment - is used only when the disorders are caused by abnormalities in the functioning of the central nervous system or anatomy.