• Black Facebook Icon
  • Black Instagram Icon

Obsessive - Compulsive Disorders

Psychiatric disorders which might led to social distancing. 

OCD.jpeg

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder in which a person becomes overly worried, afraid or takes on an unrealistic threat and tries to deal with anxiety by engaging in ritualized or specialized activities.


During the course of the disease, often recurring disturbing thoughts and images, known as obsessions or intrusive thoughts, and ritualistic activities performed to get rid of them or to prevent a "catastrophe", called compulsions or intrusive activities are observed.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

turkus ciemny.png

2,5%

The prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in society can be considered significant - it amounts to about 2.5% of the population.

turkus podstawowy.png

9-10%

If this disorder is present in the family, the risk of its development is higher and can reach even 9-10%.

turkus jasny.png

25%

In 25% of cases, symptoms begin before age 14 and in 80% before age 25

PREDISPOSING FACTORS

SERCE.png

Coexisting mental disorders: anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, addiction from psychoactive substances, eating disorders.

Genetic inclinations - obsessive-compulsive diseases diagnosed in a close family.

Abnormalities in the anatomy or functioning of the nervous system center.

Environmental factors - childhood experiences regarding the sense of responsibility, risk prevention; pressure of perfection exerted by relatives and friends.

SYMPTOMS

Obsessive-compulsive disorder can be characterized by a predominance of obsessive thoughts or compulsive activities (compulsions). The common feature of these symptoms is that the person suffering from them feels them as undesirable, illogical, therefore, they are often ashamed of.

Very strong concentration on dirt and germs

Constant doubts, e.g. whether I closed the door

Excessive focus on details, sequences or counting something

Intrusive thoughts about immoral, vulgar, obscene, socially unacceptable activities

Excessive attention to order, symmetry, accuracy

Continuous mental processing of one topic, its analysis, without the possibility of formulating constructive conclusions and making decisions

SRODEK.png

Obsessive hand washing and hygiene

Constant ordering, symmetrical arrangement of objects and frequent touching them

Intrusive, repeatedly checking something (closing windows, doors, turning off the iron)

The collection of unnecessary items, the possession of which is not rationally explained

Other, often complex, illogical activities
and absurd, but from the point of view of a sick person, requiring execution, under the threat of something catastrophic (e.g. walking around the house 20 times, touching all the books on the third shelf from the bottom of the bookcase with a finger)

In addition to the above, obsessive-compulsive disorder can be accompanied by other symptoms:

  • Tics - involuntary, recurring movements (e.g. repeated facial expressions or quick blinking of the eyes) or vocal phenomena (grunting, whistling, squeaking).

  • Phobias - various types of aversion to objects, something from the environment, resulting in the removal of these things or their avoidance (e.g. Aikhmophobia - fear of sharp objects).

TREATMENTS

turkus ciemny.png

PHARMACOTHERAPY

Administration of drugs that inhibit serotonin reuptake. All of these drugs are also used to treat depression, but much larger doses are given for OCD.
It often results in a number of side effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, weight gain, sexual dysfunction or heart rhythm problems.

turkus podstawowy.png

PSYCHOTHERAPY

The most commonly used method is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) - the therapist working with the patient uses exposure and response prevention strategies.

turkus jasny.png

SURGICAL

Surgical treatment - is used only when the disorders are caused by abnormalities in the functioning of the central nervous system or anatomy.